November 20, 2001
- Tech-Note - 093
by: Bloomfield & Associates
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- Subject: The Fat Lady Has Yet To
Sing In San Francisco
- By: Larry Bloomfield
the Peacock be unfolding its feathers at KNTV or remain at its old perch
come January 2002? NBC is apparently having second thoughts on loosing
KRON-TV in San Francisco, CA to Young Broadcasting. Word has it
that NBC talks with Young are heating up, a source at NBC confirms.
"They're heating up and they're serious," the source says,
but continues "the big stumbling block is price and we're still
far apart on that."
a former Bay Area resident, I can say that those who took note, took
the sale as a hard pill to swallow but were resigned to the fact that
as of this January, NBC would have a new home at Granite’s San Jose
based KNTV, leaving KRON-TV an independent.
reportedly paid $823 million for KRON-TV last year. Since KRON-TV would
be an independent, NBC says it only wants to pay about half that for
the station, or maybe a little more.
an O&O in the nation’s number five market would be a very bright
feather in the Peacock’s tail of stations. If this doesn’t put NBC over
the thirty-five percent coverage cap imposed by the FCC, it will put
it very close. (See Parting Shots).
also learned that NBC is treating this like on one of their game shows
and is willing to pay Granite a consolation (breakup) fee of $14.5 million,
should NBC and Young come to terms. No one at Granite was willing to
say anything, but we can only imagine what is going on behind their
- Subject: An Open Letter To Charlie
- From: Dale Cripps -- Publisher, HDTV
- Dear Charlie,
congratulations, Charlie. You have stepped into the leadership position
in DBS in the United States and let me predict that it will later be
the world. You are the BIG player to watch, and we want to watch
you...but with lots more HDTV programming.
Cuban has shown a way. From whole cloth he created a DBS network -HDTV
to be sure - catering to HDTV sports fans. Others will follow with other
appetites in focus. Why? Because HDTV is also a big deal.
about this Charlie - the more HDTV you offer on one of your two platforms,
the more decoders you won't have to replace free. People will buy them
for any new HDTV programming. The demand for HDTV IS building, Charlie,
and the costs associated with acquiring it is not its chief obstruction.
Program access is.
I hope my logic is not fuzzy nor deluded by wishful thinking. What I
hold dearly to is that HDTV - the display standard not the electronics
- is the BIG deal for the 21st century. Think of all the economic activity
that will soon hang on to any HD success - recorders, cameras, PVRs,
discs, and who knows what else. Think of the new appeal that products
and services will have when presented via HDTV. "Every increase
in communications facility," said the founder of the Society of
Motion Picture and Television Engineers, C. Francis Jenkins, has ushered
in economic expansion. This nation needs a new business success story
and none will impact our landscape more than a roaring success for HDTV.
- Dale Cripps
- Subject: San Francisco Oct 2001
SMPTE – Jason Mancebo, SGI Corp., speaker.
- By Roy Trumbull
I’ll identify something as a probable change of direction for the broadcasting
industry and Jason’s talk belongs in that category. His point was that
the time bound nature of video (30 frames/sec) is only important for
monitoring and playback. Otherwise, digital source material should be
handled as data; with no constraints on how fast or how slowly it travels
across a network.
major implication is that rather than store a program on a server in
601 format or some other format, store it as a data file and reconstitute
it to 601 etc. after retrieval. The video source feeding the server
would observe IP as would any network fed by the server. It’s expected
that the typical LAN will soon operate at 1 gig whereas the WAN speed
will continue to be driven by economics.
video as data rather than formatted video will largely eliminate encode/decode
cycles that add noise and the accumulation of errors. Jason pointed
out that encoding noise in a compression environment can actually result
in a compressed file that is larger than the source file.
benefit will be to eliminate proprietary devices and simply pass video
as a file from point to point without the need to have it bound to a
set time relationship. Thus a program could traverse a WAN at higher
than real time or slower as traffic dictates. Push-Pull software will
eliminate the need to press the play button in City A while someone
presses the record button in City B.
immediate future will require switching to devices that offer an IP
option and it is likely that the move to “central casting” will drive
much of this change.
- Roy Trumbull
- Subject:. Digital Transition Principles
- From: NAB
television broadcast industry reaffirms its commitment to an expedited
transition to digital television and the return of analog spectrum.
Moreover, a successful transition must retain protection of consumers
and the viewing audience as its ultimate goal.
an effort to advance the transition in a positive way, the NAB Television
Board of Directors directs NAB staff to expeditiously pursue innovative
solutions to the following goals:
Inclusion of over-the-air
DTV tuners in every new television set
of DTV sets with cable systems
Establishing secure full
signal carriage rights for broadcasters’ DTV signals on cable and satellite
accomplishing these objectives, NAB should aggressively seek new and
innovative ideas including single versus dual carriage options.
- Subject: A New York Update
- Compiled by: Fred Lawrence
Fred@tech-notes.tv and Reports from Mark Schubin
to our sources, two more of the New York stations that lost their main
transmitters when the World Trade Center was attacked on Sept. 11 began broadcasting from the Empire
State Building in moves that were
expected to mean dramatic improvements in over-the-air signals.
Later on in this report, Mark Schubin will go into that further.
WPIX-TV switched on a transmitter positioned on the Empire State Building antenna, giving the WB
affiliate an over-the-air signal pattern said to be similar to what
it was prior to the terrorist attacks. Both WABC-TV and WNBC-TV have
joined the ESB group.
coalition of 11 broadcasters strong in and around New York is exploring
options that include sharing management of towers built to their specifications
and needs, which the Empire State Building is not equipped
to do for all local stations.
Schubin was asked by a New York television-broadcasting engineer to
check out reception of his NTSC station in my apartment. He says it
was quite good, so he checked ALL of the New York NTSC stations, using
just the rabbit ears sticking out of the top of the set, unadjusted,
for both VHF and UHF stations. What follows is his report:
has definitely improved since the towers fell, even with many of the
stations operating at low power from temporary, distant, lower facilities.
Here are the results (channel - call - network - quality):
- 2 - WCBS-TV - CBS – fair
- 4 - WNBC-TV - NBC – unwatchable
- 5 - WNYW-TV - Fox - very good
- 7 - WABC-TV - ABC - good-to-very good
- 9 - WWOR-TV - UPN – fair
- 11 - WPIX-TV - WB - poor (barely
- 13 - WNET-TV - PBS – fair
- 25 - WNYE-TV - PBS – excellent
- 31 - WPXN-TV - Pax – unwatchable
- 41 - WXTV - Univision - very good-to-excellent
- 47 - WNJU - Telemundo – good
- 50 - WNJM - PBS – good
- 68 - WHSE - HSN – good
more distant stations in the market (channels 21, 43, 49, 52, 54, 55,
58, 62, 63, 66, and 67) were mostly unwatchable, but I got good audio
even on most of those. With some antenna tweaking (and a UHF antenna),
I might be able to get pictures from them, too.
of the Borough of Alpine, New Jersey have ordered work on the tower
that broadcasters were temporarily using to stop, saying it was being
done without permission. The tower's owners claim that a 1989
court order allows them to add equipment as long as there is "minimal"
change to the structure:
association with the Federal Emergency Management Agency's work in lower
Manhattan, the National Imagery & Mapping Agency arranged for COFDM
DTV transmissions. WNYE-DT was used. They broadcast at relatively low
power (1.25 kW) on channel 24 from a short tower in Brooklyn (meanwhile, WNYE-TV, at 2450 kW blasts away on the upper adjacent channel
from the Empire State Building). WNYE also provided
the MPEG-2 and Real encoders to create a transport stream consisting
of SDTV at 2.5 Mbps and datacasting at about 1.5 Mbps.
were reportedly many problems getting the receivers properly configured,
but, once they were, reception was said to be good in lower Manhattan
and on the FDR Drive (a highway on the east side of Manhattan) even
at 60 miles per hour. In other locations, according to the report
I received, "it was spotty. On 2nd Avenue and 34th Street
reception was nonexistent." Whether that was a power issue
or an adjacent-channel issue was not specified. Parameters were
8k, QPSK, 1/2 FEC, 1/8 guard interval, data rate about 4.15 Mbps.
Association of Broadcasters (NAB) president Edward Fritts invoked the
World Trade Center in his response to EchoStar's proposal that they be allowed to import
HDTV network signals to any market where the local affiliate broadcaster
misses the May 1 deadline. The October 24 letter to Federal Communications
Commission head Michael Powell said that some broadcasters were being
kept off the air by circumstances beyond their control. Here's
a story about the NAB response:
- Subject: Sony shuttering
- From: Broadcasting & Cable’s Michael
Pictures Entertainment is shutting down its High Definition Center on the Culver City, California
lot. The center officially closes in March, eliminating 50 jobs.
HD center was opened in 1987 by Sony Electronics to support its entry
into the HD production product market and was later absorbed into SPE.
It was used primarily used for product demonstrations, transferring
feature films to HD videotape and post production projects for outside
said it achieved its goal of stimulating the market for its high definition
1998, the center was honored with a Technical Emmy award for the its
development of a high-resolution film scanner.
Robert Hopkins, senior vice president/general manager of the HD Center,
will remain in the Digital Studios Division of SPE to oversee the transfer
to digital videotape of at least 500 film titles a year over the next
HD center has already digitally mastered 900 titles and the goal is
to have 2,400 feature film titles, or two-thirds of its library, converted
to digital by 2005. This transfer work will now be outsourced to local
- Michael Grotticelli
- Subject: Towers
- From: Bob Vinikoor 603-448-0500
case to construct a new 50kw AM station in Lebanon NH has been accepted by the New
Hampshire Supreme Court. If we win at the NH Supreme Court Level all
those with an interest in towers win. If we loose likewise it isn't
good for all those who have an interest in towers. We are looking for
help from those who might want to file as a "friend of the
court" in this matter. Send me your e-mail or fax number and I'll
fax you a 12 page court document showing the issues that we are appealing.
Just the fact that the Supreme Court has accepted this appeal is VERY
SIGNIFICANT in that they normally do not accept 5 out of 6 appeals.
- Bob Vinikoor
- Subject: Review of the Commission's
Rules and Policies Affecting the Conversion to Digital Television.
- Submitted by: R.W. ”Sam” Zborowski
Telecommunications Inc. (“ADC”) hereby submits these further comments
in the above-referenced proceeding. As described in greater detail
below, these comments address the issue of DTV service replication of
the paired analog station signal coverage as requested in the Notice
of Proposed Rule Making adopted March 6, 2000 and referenced above.
The comments describe terrain shielded DTV coverage problems and request
the Commission to consider authorizing a new class of "gap-filling"
on-channel DTV booster facilities. This proposed class of booster is
intended to address terrain shielded areas within the DTV service area
of the associated primary DTV station.
Significant DTV coverage gaps exist. Presently, substantial areas
that lie within the defined service areas (Longley-Rice noise-limited
contour) of many DTV broadcast stations are essentially terrain-shielded
from adequate DTV coverage. Viewers who reside in these areas presently
can choose to watch a weak NTSC analog signal (worse than CCIR grade
3) in the existing TV transmission environment. These viewers will consider
the new DTV service a failure when the analog system is shut down and
their locations have DTV signal strength below the receiver threshold.
A snowy picture is better than no picture. The problem is particularly
acute in mountainous areas but is even significant in areas of moderate
hills and rolling terrain. This coverage problem can represent a significant
viewer population since small towns naturally tend to become established
in valleys as opposed to on hilltops of rugged terrain. This problem
cannot be overcome by simply operating the primary DTV stations at higher
power levels. While some operators have elected to initiate DTV service
at lower than final authorized power, these operations are generally
within 3 to 10 dB of their maximum authorized power. Signal level shortfalls
of greater than 20 dB are common in valley areas of moderately rugged
One possible approach to relieve this coverage problem would
be for the FCC to authorize “Gap-filling” DTV booster deployments by
each part 73 licensee within its own DTV station service area. It should
be a relatively simple process to add low power boosters within an existing
DTV service area in such a way as to provide improved coverage while
adding little additional field strength at the noise-limited contour.
For example, a showing could be required to predict less than 1 dB increase
at any point on the noise limited contour due to the aggregate field
strengths of all planned boosters (added on a power basis rather than
on a voltage basis since the signals would be uncorrelated) added to
the field strength of the primary DTV station alone. Broadcasters would
have to apply boosters carefully to minimize the possibility of interference
to viewers that are already served by their primary transmitter. Reference
 discusses the relevant operational issues for a gap-filling booster
deployment including a discussion of mutual interference between the
primary DTV transmitter and the booster at viewer locations. A propagation
study was performed to predict the mutual interference areas in an example
booster deployment followed by a field test of that deployment. Reference
 concludes that the mutual interference problem is manageable even
with first generation DTV receivers. Expected DTV receiver improvements
should make the mutual interference issue less problematic in the future.
This type of booster deployment can bring coverage benefit to fill in
the gaps due to terrain features with little risk of harmful co-channel
interference to adjoining service areas.
Part 74 regulations. As of this writing, there are no rules in
place to authorize the licensing and standard operation of DTV boosters.
Translators and boosters for analog TV service are covered under part
74 of the FCC rules along with LPTV service. Also as of this writing,
no regulations are in place to authorize standard DTV operation through
translators or by LPTV operators. All of these services will be helpful
in providing improved digital signal coverage and more diverse program
content to the viewing public than by primary DTV stations alone. In
addition, some LPTV operators are seeking to provide different digital
services such as internet access using modulation formats other than
8-VSB. UHF delivery of internet service can be particularly beneficial
to rural populations that lie outside the geographic coverage areas
of CATV and of telco DSL service. A comprehensive study
of part 74 services is needed relevant to DTV and digital services in
general. The technical details, particularly related to interference,
and the business and political aspects of the new digital services are
likely to raise contentious issues. Such a study, together with
the related petition for rulemaking, comment periods, likely reconsideration
and further comment periods may require several years to arrive at final
adopted rules for these digital services.
Gap-filling booster rules. A distinction needs to be drawn between
the general case of translators and boosters that would extend the coverage
of a primary station beyond its coverage contour versus boosters that
are deployed to fill coverage gaps within that service area. As noted
above, a proceeding that deals with the more general issues of new digital
services both within and beyond the primary station DTV service areas
will likely take significant time to become adopted rules. The more
general case of new part 74 digital operations will introduce a new
service area for each new station which merits a comprehensive interference
study for each proposed operation. A comprehensive interference analysis
procedure is already defined and is performed as part of the existing
application process for each part 73 primary DTV station license. The
most significant technical issue to be resolved for gap-filling booster
licensing is the appropriate out of channel emissions mask required
to accommodate adjacent channel operations in the same area. The gap-filling
booster emission mask should be somewhat less severe than the primary
DTV station mask due to the substantial difference in power levels.
The present bi-ennial review of the evolving DTV service provides an
opportunity to incorporate suitable gap-filling DTV booster rules much
earlier than is possible when dealing with general part 74 revisions
for new digital services. Early adoption of gap-filling booster rules
will aid the conversion to DTV service by providing DTV signal coverage
to viewers who are not presently served by the primary DTV stations.
Co-channel interference. The proposed 1 dB additional field strength
limitation suggested earlier should be no significant factor for distant
co-channel stations. Typical spacings between co-channel stations are
on the order of 150 miles. Low-power boosters will not likely be situated
on tall towers. A typical example may be on a 100 ft tower located on
a 200 ft hilltop resulting in 300 ft HAAT. Radio Line of Sight from
a 300 ft source is only about 25 miles.
Adjacent-channel interference. Interference to adjacent-channel
operation in the same service area is likely to be the most significant
limitation to booster deployment. Reference  provides a concise review
of the planning factors employed for DTV service implementation in both
the USA and Canada.
The worst case adjacent channel interference situation is for
DTV into upper adjacent NTSC operation. Here, the (undesired) DTV average
power can be no more than about 12 dB greater than the peak visual power
of the (desired) NTSC signal peak visual power level or
-12 dB D/U ratio to produce no visible interference. An example of a
viewer at this threshold would be one located 400 ft directly beyond
a booster of 100W ERP which is 25 miles out from an adjacent channel
NTSC UHF station transmitting at 600 kW ERP. In this case the viewers
receive antenna would be looking directly into the booster output antenna
when oriented to receive the distant adjacent channel station. Viewers
located closer than 400 ft in front of the booster transmit antenna
in this example would experience visible interference to the (desired)
NTSC reception. Viewers located to the side of the booster or closer
to the primary transmitter should have no problem due to their receive
antenna directivity. Viewers located in the valley that is illuminated
by the DTV booster would initially have poor reception of the NTSC service
and experience severe interference due to the introduction of the adjacent-channel
DTV booster. In this case, a pragmatic approach to providing both NTSC
and DTV service to the valley in this example would be to introduce
boosters for both the DTV and adjacent channel NTSC stations simultaneously.
This could possibly be one piece of equipment for both channels. Multichannel
boosters are commonly employed in the Instructional Television Fixed
Service (ITFS) and Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS)
with either analog TV, digital TV or a mix of signal types.
Other cases of adjacent channel interference are less challenging.
DTV into lower adjacent NTSC is about -16 dB D/U and DTV into upper
or lower adjacent DTV is about -27 dB D/U.
Booster output power. The Sixth Report and Order on Advanced
Television Systems and Their Impact upon the Existing Television Service,
MM Docket No. 87-268 defined maximum DTV ERP levels for LPTV service
but deferred rules authorizing digital service to a later date. The
defined maximum ERP limits of 300 W on VHF and 15 kW on UHF are more
than adequate for anticipated gap-filling DTV booster deployments. The
example booster used in the field test of Reference  developed
100W ERP and provided good coverage over more than 2 miles with
a rather low transmit antenna height. Larger coverage areas may require
on the order of 1 kW ERP.
Emissions Mask. The Sixth Report and Order (April, 1997) also
corrected the description of the emission mask used for DTV planning
at that time (the old FCC mask). This mask was defined as a ratio of
the power in a 500 kHz measurement bandwidth as a function of frequency
versus a reference power level which is the average DTV signal power
in the 6 MHz channel. The required attenuation in dB relative to the
reference power=46+[(df)**2]/1.44 ;where df is the frequency offset
in MHz from channel edge to the point being studied. This attenuation
function drops to -71 dB at the start of the second adjacent channel
(6 MHz offset) and frequencies beyond.
The Memorandum Opinion and Order on Reconsideration of the Sixth
Report and Order (February, 1998) stated that laboratory modeling of
adjacent channel interference cases suggested a need for an additional
5 dB attenuation of the total out of band emissions in the adjacent
channel. The out of band emissions mask was changed as follows.
(1) In the first 500 kHz (0.5 MHz) from channel edge, emissions must
be attenuated at least 47 dB from the reference power level, again using
500 kHz measurement bandwidth. (2) for offset frequencies of 0.5 to
6.0 MHz attenuation in dB=11.5(df+3.6) ;where again df is offset frequency
from channel edge in MHz. (3) This attenuation function reaches -110
dB at offsets of 6.0 MHz and remains at that level at frequencies beyond
6 MHz offset. The Memorandum Opinion also stated in effect, that while
this new emission mask will help to reduce all cases of potential interference,
greater attenuation may be required in the event interference is caused
to any service.
Boosters of 1 kW ERP DTV power would be 17 dB lower than the
minimum 50 kW ERP of the primary DTV stations. Most booster deployments
would be at 100 W ERP or lower. These power levels suggest that the
old FCC mask may be appropriate for the gap-filling booster equipment
with the caveat that particular interference cases may need to be corrected
with additional filtering.
Frequency response issues. The presence of an adjacent channel
signal will likely require use of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter
to provide sufficient rejection of the adjacent channel. A characteristic
of SAW filters is that while they present essentially flat amplitude
and delay response across the channel, they exhibit closely spaced (in
frequency) amplitude and delay ripple that is on the order of +/- 1
dB and +/- 100 nSec. These linear distortions will cause an uncorrected
measurement of digital SNR to read in the low 20 dB range. This amount
of linear distortion is small compared with the DTV receiver equalizer
dynamic range. The majority of the equalizer correction range would
still remain available to correct multipath distortion. A small reduction
in coverage would be caused by this linear distortion in a single transmitter
environment but as discussed in , the booster coverage is more
likely limited by mutual interference rather than weak signal level.
Conclusion. While the goal of analog coverage replication by
digital service is impossible due to the digital threshold effect, on-channel
DTV booster facilities can serve as another tool to help approach the
R.W. ”Sam” Zborowski, “APPLICATION OF ON-CHANNEL BOOSTERS TO FILL GAPS
IN DTV BROADCAST COVERAGE”, NAB Broadcast Engineering Proceedings, 2000.
Yiyan Wu, Pierre Bouchard, Bernard Caron, Donald Tyrie and Royce Trenholm,
"Canadian Digital Terrestrial Television System Technical Parameters",
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, Vol. 45, No. 4, December 1999.
- Subject: MPEG
- From: Des Chaskelson,
Research Director, SCRI International (www.scri.com)
International has recently compiled a compendium of current articles
and reports on MPEG-4. This 100 page report is available free to SCRI
survey respondents (http://188.8.131.52/kb3.nsf/srv3?Open&)
and/or SCRI Insider Report Subscribers (http://www.scri.com/newscov.html).
email@example.com for more information.
- Parting Shots
- By Larry Bloomfield
- Before I ascend into the Bully Pulpit, as I have been accused of
doing, I’d like to take a moment to express my personal thanks to
all our readers and supporters. It was about five or six thanksgivings
ago that I came to work the day before the holiday to find that my
“position had been eliminated.” Not such a nice way to begin that
holiday, but then I really didn’t care too much for the creep that
I was working for. Guess I could be thankful for that.
- If it weren’t for that event, I probably wouldn’t be writing this
and being able to count among my blessings the really great people
in this industry that Tech-Notes has give me the opportunity and privilege
of knowing, one way or another. We truly have a great deal to be thankful
for… All of you are numbered in what I am thankful for.
- Now to the Pulpit! I have several good acquaintances in corporate
management at some very large broadcast concerns, so it pains me to
take the stance that I feel is right on the issues I’m going to address
here. They say that absolute power corrupts absolutely and I believe
that is true of purpose and intent when it comes to the way our industry
is going on some issues.
- When it comes to ownership, I recall when no one could own more
than seven AM, seven FM and seven TV stations. The era of mama and
papa stations flourished in those days. It wasn’t uncommon for the
folks in a town to know the owners of their broadcast facilities and
see them at the Rotary club, American Legion barbecues or in the 4th
of July parade and leading the Toys for Tots program with the local
Marine recruiter at Christmas time.
- Today those same stations are owned by faceless entities in New
York, Los Angeles or elsewhere. In some cases all that remains of
what was once the art deco studios and offices is a satellite dish
at the transmitter site feeding a mindless automation system. Try
and get one of those to help in a local fund raiser for the Optimists
or Lion’s club. The corporate bottom line has replaced community involvement
and all in the name of progress.
- As a techno geek, I love my toys and think technological innovation
is the cat’s pajamas. (Oh God! I’m dating myself!) I think it is neat
to have satellite radio with its “CD quality” available in nearly
every corner of the country. The competition is good, but competition
with what? Most all the terrestrial radio stations have been gobbled
up by a few big-city, fast-talking, suede-shoe, fat-cat bean counters.
In some towns and cities, nearly all the outlets are owned by one
- They say justice is blind. I see lady justice on the opening and
closing billboards any of several TV shows, blindfolded, holding the
scales of justice. If justice is the balance of what is good and fair
then these scales should be somewhere on the floor and not even in
her hands anymore. Why? How can it be fair to cheat the hundreds of
local communities dotting our country side from having their very
own “local” broadcast station? It was through the good old Yankee
competitive spirit that the broadcast industry was built.
- I guess the thing that bothers me the most is that this seems to
be the way television is going too. Buy up a bunch of stations and
run them all from one location – they call it central casting; a fancy
word for doing everything out of one plant for a handful of markets.
The sad part is that sponsors and viewers are unwittingly buying into
this whole scenario – like sheep being let down the primrose path
to I don’t know what.
- So with all this consolidation, what becomes of the staffs at these
various stations? I did a story on one GM touting how the cut in personnel
would save the new group owner thousands of dollars. He sang that
song until he found out that is was his finally too.
- there are companies who own thousands of AM and FM stations. The
cap that says no one entity may own television stations that reach
more than thirty-five percent of American households, irrespective
of how many stations it takes to get there is now being challenged
and expected to be either raised or removed all together.
- The one thing we can be guaranteed of in life is change and change
we will get. As I pick up my Thanksgiving day folk, being joined
by part of my family that traveled nearly a thousand miles to be with
us here on the Central Coast of Oregon, I will be thankful for change,
because it would be very monotonous if we didn’t have that factor
to deal with.
- In closing, and totally unrelated, I loved the comment that Ellen
De Generes made during the Emmys: "I'm in a unique position as
host because, think about it, what would bug the Taliban more than
seeing a gay woman in a suit surrounded by Jews?"
- Let’s do more than just “bug” the Taliban.
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