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Chrominance

C-Reality

Telecine made by Cintel. Introduced 1998. Multi format (16 mm, S16 mm, 35 mm, S 35 mm), multi standard (601 SDTV, HDTV and data) CRT device with internal primary and secondary color correction.

CA 

Conditional Access

CABSC

Canadian Advanced Broadcast Systems Committee -- A joint committee formed by the Canadian government and broadcasters to coordinate the development of standards for high definition television.

Cache

A storage area that keeps frequently accessed data or program instructions to avoid repeated retrievals.  

Caching

The process of recording material (normally spots) from tape to disk for an air playout from the disk. This is done in the background for items on a transmission list (located in the look-ahead), without operator intervention. The tape is used as a library or archive for media, and the disk holds the material needed to play to air for the next few hours or days.

CAI (Computer Aided Instruction)

Interactive, computer-based learning with or without video. The use of a computer in the actual instruction process.

Calendaring

The process of highly polishing the outer face of recording tape to make it smooth and limit its friction content.

Calibration

Adjustment of a piece of equipment in reference to a precisely-defined test signal or standard.  An external calibration signal is supplied which is available from a Pattern Generator or equivalent generator equipment.

Camera Log

A record sheet giving details of the scenes photographed on a roll of original negative. The film equivalent of the video record report.

Capstan

Part of a tape recorder’s transport system. In conjunction with the pinch roller, pulls the tape through the machine.

Capture Effect (Capture Ratio)

A phenomenon, associated with FM reception, in which only the stronger of two signals at or near the same frequency will be demodulated. Note 1: The complete suppression of the weaker signal occurs at the receiver limiter, where it is treated as noise and rejected. Note 2: When both signals are nearly equal in strength, or are fading independently, the receiver may switch from one to the other. Synonym: FM capture effect.

Carbon Microphone

A high-impedance type of microphone found in telephone receivers.

Cardioid Microphone

A microphone with a heart-shaped pickup pattern.

Cart

A box-like container used to hold videotape.  Also, see Odetics Cart or FlexiCart

Cascade

A linear signal path in which the output of one process is the input to the next. 2K Channels are switched between Cascade and Parallel on a scene to scene basis.

CAT

See Conditional Access Table.

CAV

Constant Angular Velocity: a video disc format that spins at a constant speed and assigns a variable track length to each frame. The disc spins at a rate of 30 frames per second reproducing one frame every revolution. At this rate, access to individual frames can be instantly identified and retrieved. This is referred to as rapid random access which is a basic requirement of interactive video. (See CLV).

CBR

Constant Bit Rate -- MPEG video compression with constant compression rate.

CBT (Computer-Based Training. (See CAI)).

CCD (Charge-Coupled Device)

1. A semiconductor device that can produce an electrical output analogous to the amount of light striking each of its elements. Used in cameras and telecines as an optical scanning mechanism. Advantages include good sensitivity in low light and absence of burn-in and phosphor lag found in CRTs.  2.  An analog solid state, light sensitive sampled storage device used as the optic pickup in most modern video cameras, scanners and some telecines, such as FDL60, FDL90, Quadra, Spirit and Klone.

CCIR

An international organization which regulates international communications through standards- the Comite Consultaif International des Radio-Communications.  

CCIR 601

CCIR recommendation 601. The standard for digitizing component video in both 625 and 525 systems. Also sometimes called D1 after the VTR format that first used this signal. It defines color difference component digital video as 4:2:2 sampling at 13.5 MHz, with 720 samples per active line, digitized as 8 bits.

CCIR 624 specifies the requirements for the PAL video standard, and CCIR-601 is the standard for "Beta" type recording.

CCIR 656

CCIR Recommendation 656. The international standard for the practical utilization of CCIR 601. It defines blanking, synchronization, and multiplexing techniques for both serial and parallel formats, the interface characteristics and the mechanical details for connectors in both 525 and 626 formats.

CCTV (Closed Circuit TV)

Any form of television aside from network TV and cable TV that is locally originated and displayed. A TV transmission system using wires or microwaves to distribute signals to a closed group of users.

CCVE (Closed Circuit Video Equipment)

The various equipment elements associated with a CCTV system including cameras, accessories, processing equipment, transmission equipment, output devices, and storage devices.

CDDI

Copper data distributed interface. A high speed data interface-like FDDI but using copper.
See also: FDDI.

Cell

One layer of an animation frame often painted on celluloid for compositing with other layers. (“Celluloid”)

 Cell Side

Celluloid Side. The base ('') surface of a strip of film.

CD-ROM (Compact Disc–Read Only Memory)

A 4.75-inch laser encoded optical memory storage medium with the same constant linear velocity (CLV) spiral format as compact audio discs and some videodiscs. CD-ROMs can hold about 550 megabytes of data (equivalent to 1500 floppy discs). CD-ROMs differ from regular prerecorded compact audio discs in the amount of additional error-correction information encoded. CD-ROMS primarily are used for large data and graphic files but can play back standard audio Compact Discs as well. CD-ROM is a non-recordable medium and its standard is accepted worldwide.

CD-I (Compact Disc-Interactive)

A consumer format using the 4.75-inch CD disc standard. Developed by Phillips and Sony, CD-I supports limited animation and motion video, and will play back both the CD digital audio and CD-ROM data storage formats as well. CD-I is currently used primarily for games and entertainment-oriented media, but trainers are interested in its interactive potential.

CD-ROM XA (CD-ROM Extended Architecture)

Developed by Sony and Phillips to enhance the capacity of CD-ROM. Allows for limited animation and expanded use of audio through digital compression techniques. Up to four channels of audio (one hour of audio total) can be included on the disc with graphics and data.

CD-V (Compact Disc-Video)

Provides about 5-minutes of full-motion analog video with about 20 minutes of digital audio on one disc. It is gold in color, and the primary use at the moment is music videos, most of which have been pressed in Japan.

CD/DA (Compact Disc/ Digital Audio)

The 1980s replacement of the record and can store up to 72-minutes of high-quality digital audio on a small 4.5 inch disc.

CDTV (Conventional Definition Television)

CG (Character Generator)

CGI

Common Gateway Interface. The standard for running programs on a server from a Web page. Cgi files are commonly used for form submission, guestbooks, Web-based games and more.

Channel

A digital medium that stores or transports a digital television stream.  As used in an automation system:  Defines the switching path for material in a playlist. An event is assigned to one of four channels: A, B, C or D (channel A is the default). Each channel specifies a certain switcher configuration. The channel may also be used to describe a distinct separate output or feed.  Also a portion of the television broadcast spectrum assigned to a particular broadcasting station.  Also defines the switching path for material in a playlist. An event is assigned to one of four channels: A, B, C or D (channel A is the default). Each channel specifies a certain switcher configuration. The channel may also be used to describe a distinct separate output or feed.

Channel coding 

Data encoding and error correction techniques used to protect the integrity of data that is being transported through a channel. Typically used in channels with high bit error rates such as terrestrial and satellite broadcast and videotape recording.CD-ROM Drive or Player

Checksum

A simple check value of a block of data, calculated by adding all the bytes in a block. It is easily fooled by typical errors in data transmission systems; so for most applications, a more sophisticated system such as CRC is preferred
See also: CRC.

Chorus Effect

Audio effect that makes one voice (or source) sound like many.

Chroma

The color information of a video signal.  Color is determined by the saturation (amplitude) and hue (phase angle) of the Chroma.

Chroma Key

Inserting one image over a background of a second image. Allows you to eliminate predetermined objects from one scene and put what is left within a second scene by cutting a hole in a background and filling the hole with an image or text. Chroma key uses color rather than luminance to trigger the key.

Chroma Resolution

The amount of color detail available in a television system, separate from any brightness detail. In almost all television schemes, chroma resolution is lower than luminance resolution. This is not perceived by the viewer because the human eye’s ability to see chroma detail is significantly less than it is for luminance information. Horizontal chroma resolution is only about 12 percent of luminance resolution in NTSC. (See Resolution).

Chrominance

The color information of a video signal which includes hue and saturation but not luminance.  Video with high chrominance content look intense and the colors bleed.  Video with low chrominance content looks washed out and pale.  I, Q, U, V, Cr, Cb and (R-Y), (B-Y) all represent the chrominance signals of various video formats.  In NTSC, the actual chrominance signal is obtained by quadrature modulation of a 3.58 MHz Subcarrier by the R-Y and B-Y signals.

CIF (Common Intermediate Format)

Picture format.

Cinch Works

Short scratches on the surface of a motion picture film, running parallel to its length; these are caused by improper winding of the roll, permitting one coil of film to slide against another.

 Cinemascope

Trade name of a system of anamorphic widescreen presentation. In everyday usage it has come to mean any form of widescreen format.

Click and Drag

A computer term for the user operation of clicking on an item and dragging it to a new location.

Client

A remote computer connected to a host or server computer. Also refers to the software that makes this connection possible, such as an FTP client.

Client  Workstation   

A PC connected to a Server through a network. The client workstation provides the user interface.

Cliff Effect

An RF characteristic that causes DTV reception to change dramatically with a small change in power. At the fringes of reception, current analog TV pictures degrade by becoming "snowy." With DTV, relatively small changes in received power in weak signal areas will cause the DTV picture to change from perfect to nothing and hence the name: cliff effect.

Clip  (See also Video Clip)

1. In keying, the trigger point or range of a key source signal at which the key or insert takes place. 2. The control that sets this action. To produce a key signal from a video signal, a clip control on the keyer control panel is used to set a threshold level to which the video signal is compared. 3. In digital picture manipulators, a menu selection that blanks portions of a manipulated image that leave one side of the screen and "wraps" around to enter the other side of the screen. 4. In desktop editing, a pointer to a piece of digitized video or audio that serves as source material for editing.

Clipboard      

A temporary storage location for event information. Events are cut or copied to the clipboard and can be pasted back to a different place in a location or to a different location.

Clipping

Electronic limits imposed to prevent signals exceeding maximum levels for white, black and chrominance. Hard clips simply remove all data at a define level. Soft clips attempt to retain some data by compressing the signal. see also Legal Color Limiting.

Clip Sheet

A nonlinear editing term for the location of individual audio/video clips (or scenes). Also known as a clip bin.

Clipping

A distortion caused by faulty video equipment where the peaks of either the white or black excursions of the video signal are cut off..

Clock

A timing source for charge transfer functions within CCD chips.

Clock Extractor

A device capable of extracting the bit-serial data clock from a serial data stream and generating a clock-related trigger for the measuring oscilloscope.

Clock Frequency

The master frequency of periodic pulses that are used to synchronize the operation of equipment.

Clock Jitter

Undesirable random changes in clock phase.

Clock Phase Deviation

See: Clock skew.

Clock Recovery

The reconstruction of timing information from digital data.

Clock Skew

A fixed deviation from proper clock phase that commonly appears in D-1 digital video equipment. Some digital distribution amplifiers handle improperly phased clocks by reclocking the output to fall within D-1 specifications.

Closed Captioning

 Closed Captioning is subtitling that exists as data in the transmission. The viewer can choose to display the subtitles or not. Transmission formats include Line 21 (US standard) Teletext and DVB subtitling (European standards).

Closed Caption Reading Speed

Since the viewer is busy watching and listening to the program, only part of his time is spent on reading, and his reading speed is therefore low. The use of a font with good legibility helps.

Closing Billboard

This is usually the absolute closing segment of any show.  It may or may not contain the closing credits.  It always identifies what the show was.

Cluster

A group of material events in a schedule.

CLV (Constant Linear Velocity)

The rotation technique used for compact discs and video disc players designed for the consumer market. The rotation speed changes depending on the location of the track being read to allow the track to pass the playback head at a constant rate. This allows for increased storage capacity on the disc but reduces the ability to access individual frames of information quickly or accurately. CLV videodiscs hold 60 minutes of video and audio per side but have limited interactivity (still frame, etc.). (See CAV).

CNR (Carrier to Noise Ratio)

Indicates how far the noise level is down on carrier level.

Coaxial Cable (COAX)

A one-conductor, one-ground cable which can carry a wide range of frequencies up to 1,000 feet with little or no signal loss. The primary means of equipment interconnection for video devices.

Code Generation

A clock that will put an identification time code onto the tape carrying picture and/or track information.

Codec

An electronic device that converts analog signals to digital form and vice versa. Codec stands for COder/DECoder. A codec is generally made up of a central processing unit (CPU) and memory. Codecs also compress and decompress data to allow real time transmission over a digital link with 56 Kbps to 45 Mbps of bandwidth.

Codec Bandwidth

Video codecs are generally broken into two categories: low-bandwidth codecs that operate at 56 Kbps to 384 Kbps, and high-bandwidth codecs that operate at 384 Kbps to 1.544 Mbps (or higher). Economical low-bandwidth codecs are generally used for individual or small group applications. Larger group situations generally require a higher bandwidth codec to insure good picture quality.

Codec Options

Codecs offer a variety of features and options that help to tailor a videoconferencing system to a particular application, such as separate graphics and user data channels, and picture-in-picture video processing.

Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (COFDM)

Coded Representation

A data element as represented in its encoded form.

Coding

Representing each video signal level as a number, usually in binary form.

Coercivity

The ability of a magnetic tape to retain information.

COFDM

Coded Orthogonal Frequency Domain Multiplex.  Up to 6875 carriers 1 kHz aparta are QAM modulated with up to 64 states. “Coded means that the data to be modulated has error control.  Orthogonality means that the spectra of the individual carriers (almost) do not influence each other, as a spectral maximum always coincides with a spectrum zero of the adjacent carriers.  A single-frequency network is used for the actual transmission.

Collision

The result of two devices trying to use a shared transmission medium simultaneously. The interference ruins both signals, requiring both devices to retransmit the data lost due to the collision.

Color Balance

The removal of color casts from an image. Also the removal of color casts from a camera or monitor.

Color Bars

The standard video test signal used for adjusting the color levels and luminance levels in video equipment. They consist of a pattern of the primary (Red ,Green, Blue) and secondary (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow) colors plus white and black. (See EIA Color Bars) Color Bars are used as a reference at the head end of a videotape recording. The playback machine is set up using color bars to ensure accurate color saturation and balance during playback.

Color Burst

A nine-cycle sample of the subcarrier signal inserted at the beginning of each horizontal line just after the horizontal sync pulse and used to ensure that colors maintain the correct phase relationship during each line.

A small packet of cycles of the color subcarrier, which occur during the back porch of each line of video.  The Color Burst serves as a phase and frequency reference for demodulation of the color information in a receiver such as a television.  That portion of the video waveform which sits between the breezeway and the start of active video. The color burst tells the color decoder how to decode the color information contained in that line of active video. By looking at the color burst, the decoder can determine what is blue, orange, or magenta. The decoder figures out what the correct color is. Incorrect colors in a  TV picture may indicate that that the TV cannot find the color burst and does not know how to make the correct color.

Color Depth

The number of bits per pixel. One bit per pixel allows two colors (often black and white) to be displayed; two bits per pixel allow four colors; three bits allow eight colors; and in general, n bits allow 2n colors.

Color Difference Signals

Matrixed signals derived from subtracting color information from the luminance “Y” signal. Color difference signals form the basis for color information within component video signals. “R-Y” and “B-Y” (the basis for component video recording) or the related “I” (In phase) and “Q” (Quadrature) signals, the color difference signals used in NTSC.

The signals used to specify color information (e.g. R-Y, B-Y, I and Q) designed such that the signal levels equate to zero when there is no color content in the video.

Color Encoder

The part of a video process where the primary colors are combined or encoded into a composite signal.

Color Filter Array (CFA)

A special multiple filter array that creates a linear or mosaic of color patterns over each pixel in a CCD that allows only one color to pass (red, green, or blue) through individual pixel elements. The CFA makes possible three-color imaging with only one imager.

Color Framed

The achievement of a correct edit in either PAL or NTSC, by ensuring that the 2 scenes are in the same field sequence as each other.

Color Framing

A method of identifying correctness of color in a television system.

Color Grading

The process of color correction or enhancement. Usually takes place either in the laboratory prior to making the final print, or in the telecine suite as part of the film to tape process. It is now possible to Color Grade in the tape to tape domain too. The term usually implies a preview and adjust stage, followed by a real time replay with the new grades.

Color Phase

The correct timing relationship within the color display.  Color is said to be "in-phase" when the hue is reproduced correctly in the video system.

Color Subcarrier

The high frequency signal (3.58 MHz for NTSC, 4.43 MHz for PAL) which carries the color information and which is superimposed upon the luminance signal.  The amplitude of the color subcarrier represents saturation, and the phase angle represents hue.

Color Temperature

The precise measurement of light, expressed in degrees Kelvin (K). Represents the color of light emitted by a piece of wire when heated to that temperature. Interior (Tungsten) light is about 3200K; exterior daylight is about 7200K; skylight can be upwards of 10,000K The standard for a TV monitor white is 6500K

 Colorimetry

The science of color measurement

Color Under

The process of reducing the size of the signal’s color information to limit the bandwidth requirements. It offers cost-effective solutions suitable for analog, composite tape formats that do not require multiple generation capabilities. 3/4 inch U-matic®, VHS, Beta, S-VHS, 8mm and Hi8™ are all color under formats.

Colorimetry

The measure of how well a camera reproduces the colors of the scene with respect to hue, saturation, and brightness.

Colorist

1. A person of remarkable technical and aesthetic skills who advises on and manipulates color and color visual style. Colorists work in all industries from hair dressing and fashion to film and video. (written by a colorist)      2. The user of a da Vinci (or similar) color enhancement system.

 Colorist Toolbox

The global term for an area of the 2K system that will accept plug in hardware to provide special effects and procedures.

Comb Filter

An electronic filter designed to separate chroma and luma information.

Combined Status

The combined state of all the External Master and House Master media throughout their lives at the broadcast facility. Most states require manual setting by the user.

Combiner

In digital picture manipulators, a device that controls the way in which two or more channels work together. Under software control, it determines the priority of the channels (which picture appears in front and which in back) and the types of transitions that can take place between them.

Communications Satellite

A satellite used to receive and re-transmit data, including video and audio signals and data. Communications satellites must be in geostationary, or geosynchronous, orbits.

Com opt

Combined Optical. A Film Print with an optical sound track as well as the picture.

Compander

Audio term: combination of compressor and expander. Another generic term for noise reduction unit.

Compilation      

The process of prerecording spots successively onto one tape. The spots are grouped together on one tape (each group is called a pod) and played out in the order recorded. The compilation process reduces the number of tapes (and VTR'S) used during playout.

 Compile Reel

See Spot Reel.

Component Digital

A digital representation of a component analog signal set, most often Y, B-Y, R-Y. The encoding parameters are specified by ITU-R BT.601-2 (CCIR 601). The parallel interface is specified by ITU-R BT.656 (CCIR 656) and SMPTE 125M.

Component Digital Post Production

A method of post production that records and processes video completely in the component digital domain. Analog sources are converted only once to the component digital format and then remain in that format throughout the post production process.

Component Video

A video signal that has not been encoded and retains the original color information as separate elements. Technically superior to encoded composite video. The transfer of the three-color video signals that describe a color image. The most common component systems are RGB and Y/R-Y/B-Y. “Y” stands for luminance or brightness, the sum of R, G, and B. By subtracting Y from (R-Y) and from Blue (B-Y), two color difference signals are produced which when transmitted with the “Y” signal can be used to recreate the original RGB color information.

Composite Digital

A digitally encoded video signal, such as NTSC or PAL video, that includes horizontal and vertical synchronizing information.

Composite Inputs

Used to connect an external stereo generator to a transmitter

Composite Print

A motion picture print with both picture and sound on the same strip of film.

Composite Sync

A signal containing all the timing pulses which are needed to lock the electron beam of the picture monitor in step, both horizontally and vertically, with the electron beam of the imaging device.

Composite Video

The most common type of video signal, in which the color (chrominance) and brightness (luminance) information is combined onto a single signal path. Composite signals are used in television broadcast and most video recording applications. Some image degradation results from combining the signals. Also, a video signal where the different elements (luminance and chrominance), have been encoded to form one combined signal. This combination creates NTSC, PAL or SECAM video, often with artifacts in fine detail. Composite provides unacceptable quality for chroma-keying work, but is good for transmission/distribution as only one cable is needed.

 Compositing

Layering multiple pictures on top of each other. A cutout or matte holds back the background and allows the foreground picture to appear to be in the original picture.

Compress

A digital picture manipulator effect where the picture is squeezed (made proportionally smaller).

Compressed Serial Digital Interface (CSDI)

A way of compressing digital video for use on SDI-based equipment proposed by Panasonic. Now incorporated into Serial digital transport interface.
See: Serial digital transport interface.

Compressed Time Division Multiplexing

A process used in Betacam® recording. This effectively halves the size of the chroma signals so they can both be placed on the tape, adjacent to the un-compressed luma signal ensuring that the chroma signals coincide with the luma signals as they are read from the tape.

Compression

Reduction of the size of digital data files by removing redundant information (lossless) or removing non-critical data (lossy).  Pictures are analyzed looking for redundancy and repetition and so discard unnecessary data. The techniques were primarily developed for digital transmission but have been adopted as a means of handling digital video in computers and reducing the storage demands for digital VTRs. Compression can be at either a set rate or a variable rate. An evolving and highly complex mathematical technique that condenses digital picture information so that it takes up less space.
Also known as Bit Rate Reduction (BRR).

Compression Artifacts

Compacting of a digital signal, particularly when a high compression ratio is used, may result in small errors when the signal is decompressed. These errors are known as "artifacts," or unwanted defects. The artifacts may resemble noise (or edge "busyness") or may cause parts of the picture, particularly fast moving portions, to be displayed with the movement distorted or missing.

Compression Ratio

Compression ratio is a number used to tell how much information is squeezed out of an image when it has been compressed.  For example, if a 1 MB image is compressed to 128 KB, the compression ratio would be:

     1,048,576 / 131,072 = 8

This represents a compression ratio of 8:1; 1/8 of the original amount of storage is now required. For a given compression technique, the higher the compression ratio, the worse the image looks. This has nothing to do with which compression method is better, for example JPEG vs. MPEG. Rather, it depends on the application. A video stream that is compressed using MPEG at 100:1 may look better than the same video stream compressed to 100:1 using JPEG.

Compression Threshold

The level at which an audio compressor is activated.

Compressionist

One who controls the compression process to produce results better than would be normally expected from an automated system.

Compressor (Audio)

A device which reduces the dynamic range of a signal so that it can more easily be handled by an audio circuit or recording device.

Component Video

Video which is comprised of separate signals to maintain better color integrity, better picture resolution, and eliminate cross-color and cross-luminance artifacts commonly found in composite video.  For example, RGB, Y/C, and Y, R-Y, B-Y are three component video formats.

Composite Sync

A special video signal made up of only horizontal sync pulses, vertical sync pulses, equalization pulses, and serration pulses. It does not contain any picture information, only the synchronizing pulses.

Composite Video

A single video signal which combines the luminance, chrominance, and synchronization information.  Chrominance is merged with the luminance signal by quadrature amplitude modulation of the R-Y and B-Y signals.  NTSC RS-170A is a composite video signal, so is PAL, and SECAM; each is created differently.

Compression System

An external system responsible for encoding and decoding the video stream, thereby maximizing bandwidth.

Computer Conferencing

1. Interactive group communication in which a computer is used to receive, hold, and distribute messages between participants. Generally referred to as a store and forward medium; sometimes called interactive group electronic mail. 2. Conferencing participants communicate using keyboards to transmit written messages to one another. Communication may be synchronous – interactive in real time. More commonly it is asynchronous: messages are stored in a central computer until retrieved by their intended recipients.

Concatenation

Linking together (of systems). Although the effect on quality resulting from a signal passing through many systems has always been a concern, the use of a series of compressed digital video systems is, as yet, not well known. The matter is complicated by virtually all digital compression systems differing in some way from each other-hence the need to be aware of concatenation. For broadcast, the current NTSC and PAL analog compression systems will, more and more, operate alongside digital MPEG compression systems used for transmission and, possibly, in the studio.
Even the same brand and model of encoder may encode the same signal in a different manner.
See also: Mole technology.

Condenser Microphone

A low-impedance type of microphone that operates on electrostatic principals. (See Electret Microphone).

Conditional Access

A system for controlling subscriber access to DVB signals using decryption and the descrambling methods, also known as “entitlement”.  It defines the conditions wherein a viewer is granted access to certain programming.  For instance, paying extra each month for HBO, or calling up before a big game and charging your account so you can watch it.

Conditional Access Profile Editor

A tool in TCS for displaying what a viewer can see, hear, buy or other related activity with respect to a Pay-Per-View program or other material.

Conditional Access Table

Provides information dependent on the CA systems used, and proprietary to, the broadcast multiplex.

Config. (Plant Configuration)

The facility configuration part of TCS. Enables setup and modification of the physical network, automation system, channels, services, and transponders.

Configuration

A file containing settings to be used at the start of a session. The Configuration File consists of two parts: Environmental and Memory. The DUI user can store unlimited Configurations. The classic interface da Vincis allow only one Standard Configuration per user and this only stores parameters that do not change on a scene by scene basis.

Configuration Base Memory

The default Memory settings of a Configuration File. It can hold any parameters that are event by event programmable, including primaries, secondaries and output settings. When a Configuration File is loaded the Configuration Base memory overwrites the Session Base memory.

Consistency Checker

The process wherein the scheduling software looks for inconsistencies, service personality violations, black-air, and a host of other problems that could arise if an attempt was made to broadcast the selected programming as is. (May be known as a “conflict checker” in some systems.

Constellation Diagram

Way of representing the I and Q components for QAM or QPSK modulation.  The position of the points in the constellation diagram provided information about distortions afater the transmission of digitally-coded signals.

Constant Bit Rate

Operation where the bit rate is constant from start to finish of the compressed bit stream.

Container

A period of time in which long- and/or short-form program material is scheduled  (until the time period is filled).

Content Control

The ability to preview material to be broadcast, usually for the purpose of censorship.

Continuous Presence

Used in videoconferencing applications. Most systems are equipped with cameras that can be panned, tilted, and zoomed in and out to capture meeting participants as the discussion moves around a conference room table; but sometimes an application calls for the ability to capture all participants all the time. The continuous presence option can be accomplished by taking the input from two cameras (usually with a fixed “crossfire” view) and simultaneously displaying them on the monitors at the remote site by using a split screen technique. This can be accomplished with the Sony PCS-S1100 controller or by optional hardware available from some codec manufacturers.

 Contour Correction

The process of enhancing apparent resolution, especially in video cameras, telecines and noise reducers. The technique exaggerates edges. Also known as Aperture Correction.

 Contouring

1. The process of enhancing apparent resolution, especially in video cameras, telecines and noise reducers. The technique exaggerates edges.  2. The unwanted artifacts that may occur around edges in poorly digitized images.  3. Digital video picture defect caused quantizing at too coarse a level.

Contract

Binding agreement between the facility and a distributor, producer, etc., for the purpose of acquiring and storing products in TCS.

Contrast

The range of light and dark values in a video picture specified as a ratio between the maximum and the minimum brightness values.  High contrast depicts whites and blacks with little grays while low contrast depicts mostly grays.  A term referring to how far the whitest whites are from the blackest blacks. , "Contrast" is the general term for the property called "gamma" (Y). If the peak white is far away from the peak black, the image is said to have high contrast. With high contrast, the image is very stark and very "contrasty", like a black-and-white tile floor. If the two are very close to each other, the image is said to have poor, or low, contrast and looks gray.

Contrast Ratio

The ratio of the scale between the brightness of the brightest possible area in an image to the darkest possible area.

Contribution Quality

The level of quality of a television signal from the network to its affiliates. For digital television this is approximately 45 Mbps.

Control Track

A signal that is recorded onto videotape while video is recorded to make certain that the tape speed and head speeds are correctly synchronized with the original recording parameters. The lower portion along the length of a videotape on which sync control information is placed and used to control the recording or playing back of the video signal on a VTR.

Conventional Definition Television (CDTV)

The analog NTSC television system as defined in ITU-R Recommendation 470.  See also standard definition television and ITU-R Recommendation 1125.

Convergence

Proper alignment of the vertical and horizontal lines to ensure that red, blue, and green signals are correctly registered to produce a proper color image on video displays. Convergence circuits are found on color monitors and projectors.

Convergence (Pattern or Test Signal)

A test pattern of vertical and horizontal lines used to adjust the path of the RGB electron beams in a color monitor or projector so that each beam only impinges on its color phosphors.  An electronically-generated convergence test pattern consists of white dots on a black background or a white rectangular grid on a black background.  This pattern is used to make adjustments on the monitor or projector so that color fringing around the white areas is eliminated.  Also known as crosshatch.

Convolution Coding

The data stream to be transmitted via satellite (DVB-S) loaded bit by bit into shift registers.  The data, which is split and delayed as it is shifted through different registers, is combined in several paths.  This means that double the data rate (2 paths) is usually obtained.  Puncturing follows to reduce the data rate; the time sequence of the bits is predefined by this coding and is represented by the trellis diagram.  

Copy   

This command duplicates an event, and places it in the clipboard.

Core

In fiber optic cable, the core is the light-transmitting material at the center of the fiber.

Cosine Transform Coding

An algorithm or method used by some video codecs to compress digitized motion video images to very low data rates. Relies upon the mathematical transform referred to as the cosine transform. DCT (Discrete Cosine Transfer) is the method adapted for the world-wide H.261 standard for teleconferencing.

Cositing

Relates to SMPTE 125M component digital video, in which the luminance component (Y) is sampled four times for every two samples of the two chrominance components (Cb and Cr). Cositing refers to delaying transmission of the Cr component to occur at the same time as the second sample of luminance data. This produces a sampling order as follows: Y1/Cb1, Y2/Cr1, Y3/Cr3, Y4/Cb3, and so on. Cositing reduces required bus width from 30 bits to 20 bits.

Countdown

A leader inserted prior to a program, providing a visual and audible indication of the time left before the first frame of the program.  Film leaders may be in feet or seconds, Video leaders are generally in the form of a clock.

CPU

Central Processing Unit. Simply put, it's the main processor of a computer that makes everything work.

CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check)

Cyclic redundant check. Used in data transfer to check if the data has been corrupted. It is a check value calculated for a data stream by feeding it through a shifter with feedback terms "EXORed" back in. It performs the same function as a checksum but is considerably harder to fool.
A CRC can detect errors but not repair them, unlike an ECC-which is attached to almost any burst of data that might possibly be corrupted. They are used on disks, ITU-R 601 data, Ethernet packets, etc.

CRI

Color Reversal Intermediate, a duplicate color negative prepared by reversal processing.

Credits

This is a list of who did what on a show or program. Credits on film are normally at the beginning of the feature, with a reprise of the cast at the end.  In television credits usually run at the end of the show only.  They can be short or long.  Credits are normally determined by union contract as to which job titles are listed.  The producer would determine the rest. On daily TV shows, normally the producer and director will get daily credits, with the remainder of the crew getting credits on the last show of the week.  Credits can be considered a segment and can be part of a billboard.

Cross Color

An artifact of NTSC video systems caused by the mixture of high luminance and chrominance information, typically seen as a rainbow patterns in highly textured picture content (e.g. striped shirts). It is caused when the luminance and the chrominance information occupy the same spectrum in the picture, i.e. 3.58 MHz

Cross Hatch

(See Convergence)

Cross Luminance

An artifact of NTSC video systems caused by leakage of the chrominance information into the luminance signal, typically seen as a dot pattern crawling up the edges of color areas.  Also known as "dot crawl".

Crossover Network

A device employed in audio monitors (speaker systems) that separates one range of frequencies from another. Two-way crossover networks would send lower frequency signals to the large speaker (woofer) while sending higher frequencies to the small speaker (tweeter).

Crosspoint 

A junction in a switcher where an input finds its output path.  This could be audio, video, timecode, machine control, nearly anything.  In automations systems:  An input or output on a switcher or router, which carries audio and video signals. CUT To remove or delete an event from a list, and place it in the clipboard.

Crosstalk

Interference of one channel of electrical information with another adjacent channel. This could be from one stereo channel to another (e.g. left to right, right to left) or chroma and luma information in a video system.

CRT (Cathode Ray Tube)

A vacuum tube that is the picture display device in television monitors. A CRT has a heater element (electron gun) at one end capable of producing a beam of electrons. The beam strikes the face of the tube which has been coated with special phosphors. When the beam strikes the phosphors, they glow in proportion to the signal strength striking them. By applying a scanning pattern (raster) to the beam, a television signal can be recreated as a picture on the tube surface.

Crystal Microphone

A high-impedance type of microphone found in inexpensive consumer electronic devices.

CSA

Comprehensive Support Agreement. A contract with da Vinci for 24 hour world wide customer support for all da Vinci models.

CSDI (Compressed Serial Digital Interface)

CSU (Channel Services Unit)

A videoconferencing, telecommunications term: a CPE (Customer Premises Equipment {phone company term}) component which terminates a digital circuit such as a Tl line. The CSU performs line conditioning and interface functions and assures compliance to FCC regulations.

Cue

To ready a source for playback. To locate the starting point.

Cue Out

A tone, pulse, or TTL type signal used as a communications trigger of events in editing. There are no standards for cue out, so it often requires a custom interface to make it compatible with other devices.

Custom Curves

The Custom Curves option provides the means to redefine the 888 gamma controls. In this way it is possible to extend or restrict the range of these controls, or to limit the luminance values which are to be affected. It is also possible to create exciting effects by applying different gamma enhancements at different luminance values. Custom Curves can therefore be used to define black stretch, soft white clip, solarization and posterized effects. They can also be used to apply a "film look", or to correct for faded color emulsions.

 Cut

The edit (from the days when film editing involved physically cutting and splicing the film) A visual technique where the picture changes instantaneously from one scene to an entirely different one.  In Material-Based scheduling, any valid and, logical, timecode segment between the SOM and EOM.  In addition, any one of several spots, promos, PSA or program segments on a tape or DVD.

Cutlist

A list of logical cuts. See “Named Cutlist

CVD (Compact Video Disc)

Uses the 4.75-inch optical disc format to record analog video in the same format as larger CAV and CLV discs. It will support 20 minutes of video on a CLV disc (no still frames or random access) and 10-12 minutes on a CAV disc (random access and special features). There are a limited number of titles available today- primarily music videos.

Cycles Per Second  (CPS)

See Hertz.

Cynch Mark

Caused by cynching. Longitudinal scratches, usually fine, caused by film or tape being pulled tight on a reel.

CW (Continuous Wave)

The separate 3.58 MHz subcarrier used for synchronization of the chrominance signal.

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