I (In Phase) Signal
One of two color difference signals in the NTSC system. The other signal is the Q (Quadrature) signal.
One of the three
types of frames that are used in MPEG-2 coded signals. These contain
data to construct a whole picture as they are composed of information
from only one frame (intraframe). The original information is compressed
IBAUnited Kingdom statutory authority responsible for regulating domestic independent broadcasters, both technically and legally.
IBOC - In In-Band, On Channel" For example: In the existing FM Band, or In the existing AM BandThis is a new standard of digital transmission. There is both AM-IBOC and FM-IBOC.
Interface Control Document - Describes protocol for exchanging data between systems (i.e. headers, field order, codes, etc.)
A graphic associated with a computer function to be performed; a term referring to symbols used for computer commands on computers equipped with a Graphic User Interface. (See GUI).
1. This usually refers to the station ID. By FCC regulations, all stations must identify visually and or aurally once every hour. The ID must contain the station’s call sign or letters and city of license. All IDs must be logged in the official operating log. 2. A unique sequence of characters used to identify an event or tape cassette (box).
IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission)
IEEE P1394 (FireWire)
A low-cost digital
interface originated by Apple Computer as a desktop LAN and developed
by the IEEE P1394 working group. Can transport data at 100, 200, or
IFS (Integrated Financial System)
The MEASAT billing system for spots and provider payment.
A device used in law enforcement, surveillance, and security applications that can amplify the image output signal of an imager, producing a usable picture in extremely low-light situations.
Image Maps are user-defined areas of an image, also known as hot spots, which move a user from an image to an associated URL or page within a URL when clicked. Images may have more than one defined area; each with its own associated URL. The top of this page features an image map.
Techniques that manipulate the pixel values of an image to alter or improve image quality. Examples include brightness or contrast correction, color correction, changing size (scaling), or changing the shape of the image (warping).
An expression of the electrical resistance in a circuit that is the total opposition to electric current flow. Impedance is measured in Ohms (W). A standard video signal has an impedance of 75W.
Punctured, convolutional coding scheme used for the DVB-S and DVB-T system specifications.
Bins in an LMS functioning as the cassette input area. Cassettes placed in these bins by an operator are transferred by the LMS robot to internal, long-term storage bins within the system.
Input Jitter Tolerance
Peak-to-peak amplitude of sinusoidal jitter that, when applied to equipment input, causes a specified degradation of error performance.
An electronic edit in which the existing control track is not replaced during the editing process. The new segment is inserted into program material already recorded on the video tape. Tapes are often "Striped" or "Blacked" for this purpose. Also, the insertion of a segment into an already recorded series of segments on a videotape. Allows separate editing of video and audio tracks.
Individual commercial appearance on broadcast advertising schedule.
Intelligent Device Controllers (IDC)
Generic term for devices that directly control other devices typically by means of serial and/ or parallel control signals.
Involving the active participation of the user in directing the flow of the computer or video program. A system which exchanges information with the viewer, processing the viewer’s input in order to generate the appropriate response within the context of the program—as opposed to a linear program in which the viewer passively watches from beginning to end.
1. An audiographic teleconferencing system which allows all sites to modify and change a commonly shared electronic diagram or graphic. 2. Computer graphics.
1. Media which involves the viewer as a source of input to determine the content and duration of a message, permitting individualized program material. 2. A philosophy of media production designed to take maximum advantage of random access, computer-controlled videotape and videodisc players.
The combination of microprocessors and video where the sequence of information is determined by the user’s response.
An electronic device which allows dissimilar components in a system to communicate. The connection between two devices, such as a computer and a peripheral, for example.
Data reduction based on coding the differences between a prediction of the data and the actual data. Motion compensated prediction is typically used, based on reference frames in the past and the future.
The pattern of two separate field scans when they join to form a complete video frame. As the video picture is transmitted, the first field picks up even-numbered scan lines, the second picks up odd-numbered ones. The two lace together to form a single, complete frame. (See “Field” and “Frame”).
The display of a video frame as two fields (odd scan line painted first, then even scan lines).
A method of scanning in which one-half the total lines (262.5) are scanned in one field (even-numbered lines), and the other half of the total number of lines are scanned in the next field (odd-numbered lines). Thus, adjacent lines of a complete picture (one-frame) belong to successive fields.
The RS-protected transport packets are reshuffled byte by byte by the 12-channel interleave. Due to this reshuffle, what were neighboring byes are now separated by at least one protected transport packet, i.e., are at least 204 bytes apart from each other. The purpose of this is the burst error control for defective data blocks.
Interline Transfer (IT) Device
A CCD that employs light-shielded structures called vertical registers which are mounted next to individual pixel sensors to facilitate charge transfer. IT devices are simpler to manufacture and are, therefore, less costly than FT or FIT devices. IT sensors are used on lower-cost broadcast cameras and most industrial and consumer cameras.
made from an Inter-positive, from which the Release Prints are made.
The Inter Negative is composited and color graded
(color timed), and of low contrast making it a good choice for
A color master positive print, on
negative stock. Used as the intermediate stage in the production of
Duplicate Negatives. Inter-Positives
are graded low contrast masters and therefore very suitable for
Unwanted additional energy in a signal and unwanted
contributions from less informed individuals.
A process in
which the picture is split into two fields by sending all the odd
numbered lines to field one and all the even numbered lines to
field two. One video frame, is made up of two interlace fields. This
was necessary in the early days of TV when there was not enough
bandwidth to send a complete frame fast enough to create a
General term for
color masters and dupes.
Originally designed by the U.S. Defense Department so that a communication signal could withstand a nuclear war and serve military institutions worldwide, the Internet was first known as the ARPAnet. The Internet is system of linked computer networks, international in scope, that facilitates data communication services such as remote login, file transfer, electronic mail and newsgroups. The Internet is a way of connecting existing computer networks that greatly extends the reach of each participating system.
In digital video,
the creation of new pixels in the image by some method of averaging
the values of neighboring pixels. This is necessary when an image
is digitally altered, such as when the image is expanded or compressed.
Also inferring a point which
does not actually exist by averaging real points near it, either in
space or time. Used extensively in digital effects
devices and standards converters.
The interval between two spots, usually filled by Color Black, and used to determine the pacing of a material playout sequence.
Any short form material that goes between cuts in a larger program or between programs themselves. These are usually spots, PSAs, promos, etc.
Intra-coded Pictures or I-Pictures or I-Frames
Pictures that are coded using information present only in the picture itself and not depending on information from other pictures. I-pictures provide a mechanism for random access into the compressed video data. I-pictures employ transform coding of the pel blocks and provide only moderate compression.
A private network inside a company or organization that uses the same types of software that you would find on the public Internet, but is only for internal use.
Jitter at a device's output in the absence of input jitter.
Input/output. Typically refers to sending information or data signals to and from devices.
Protocol Address. A numeric address that is given to servers and users
connected to the Internet.
I, P and B Pictures
Intra-coded picture (I), predicted pictures (P) and bi-directional predicted pictures (B).
IPPV (Impulse Pay-Per-View)
The ability to order a movie advertised in the EPG, directly through the IRD (Interactive Receiving Decoder).
Relay Chat. A live chat area of the Internet in which real-time conversations
among two or more people take place via special software. Each
specific IRC channel begins with a # and is dedicated to a different area
of interest. IRC is considered another part of the technology of the
Internet the same way FTP, Telnet and the Web are.
IRD (Integrated Received Decoder)
The (consumer set-top box) for reception and decoding of subscription A/V/data services. Decodes the signal downlinked from the satellite. Unscrambles programming provided the viewer is entitled. Also capable of communication with the SMS if implemented. Allows viewer to interact with the facility to request a PPV event.
The Institute of Radio Engineers. An organization defining the IRE unit equal to 1/140th of the peak-to-peak amplitude of a video signal. Typically for baseband video, 1 volt =140 IRE and 7.14 mV = one IRE. On a waveform monitor, each vertical mark on the graticule is 10 IRE.
An aperture in camera lenses which controls the amount of light passing through the lens to reach the imager. The iris is required to compensate for changing lighting conditions.
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
Allows data to be
transmitted at high speed over the public telephone network. ISDN
operates from the Basic Rate of 64 kbits/sec to the Primary Rate of
2 Mbps (usually called ISDN-30 as it comprises 30 Basic Rate channels).
Most of the Western world currently has the capability to install
ISDN-2 with 128 kbps and very rapid growth is predicted for ISDN generally.
In the television and film industries, audio facilities are already
using it. The cost of a call is usually similar to using a normal
A CCITT standard for integrated transmission of voice, video, and data. Bandwidths include basic rate (144 kbps) and primary rate (1.544 and 2.048 Mbps.)
ISO (International Organization of Standardization)
An international character set standard, of which ASCII is a subset.
Internet Service Provider. A company that provides access to the Internet. Before you can connect to the Internet you must first establish an account with an ISP.
ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
International Telecommunications Union. An international broadcast standards committee that replaced the CCIR. Place des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland. Tel: 011-41-22-730-5111. Fax: 011-41-22-733-7256. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Internet: www.itu.ch.
See: ITU-R BT.601-2.
Formerly known as
CCIR 601. An international standard for component digital television
from which was derived SMPTE 125M (was RP-125) and EBU 3246E standards.
This International Telecommunications Union (ITU) recommendation defines
the sampling systems, matrix values, and filter characteristics for
both Y, B-Y, R-Y and RGB component digital television.